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SECTION 2. Codex Standards for Fatsand Oils from Vegetable Sources Codex Standard for Named VegetableOils (CODEX-STAN 210 - 1999) Codex Standard for Olive Oil, Virgin and Refined and for Refined Olive-Pomace Oil (CODEX STAN 33-1981, Rev. 1-1989) Codex Standard for Named VegetableOils (CODEX-STAN 210 - 1999)The Appendix to this Standard is intended for voluntaryapplication by commercial partners and not for application bygovernments.1. SCOPEThis Standard applies to the vegetable oils described inSection 2.1 presented in a state for human consumption.2. DESCRIPTION2.1 Product Definitions(Note: synonyms are in brackets immediately following the nameof the oil)2.1.1 Arachis oil (peanut oil; groundnut oil) isderived from groundnuts (seeds of Arachis hypogaea L.).2.1.2 Babassu oil is derived from the kernel of thefruit of several varieties of the palm Orbignya spp.2.1.3 Coconut oil is derived from the kernel of thecoconut (Cocos nucifera L.).2.1.4 Cottonseed oil is derived from the seeds ofvarious cultivated species of Gossypium spp.2.1.5 Grapeseed oil is derived from the seeds of thegrape (Vitis vinifera L.).2.1.6 Maize oil (corn oil) is derived from maize germ(the embryos of Zea mays L.).2.1.7 Mustardseed oil is derived from the seeds ofwhite mustard (Sinapis alba L. or Brassica hirta Moench), brownand yellow mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernajew and Cossen) and ofblack mustard (Brassica nigra (L.) Koch).2.1.8 Palm kernel oil is derived from the kernel of thefruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).2.1.9 Palm oil is derived from the fleshy mesocarp ofthe fruit of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).2.1.10 Palm olein is the liquid fraction derived fromthe fractionation of palm oil (described above).2.1.11 Palm stearin is the high-melting fractionderived from the fractionation of palm oil (described above).2.1.12 Rapeseed oil (turnip rape oil; colza oil;ravison oil; sarson oil: toria oil) is produced from seeds of Brassicanapus L., Brassica campestris L., Brassica juncea L. andBrassica tournefortii Gouan species.2.1.13 Rapeseed oil - low erucic acid (low erucic acidturnip rape oil; low erucic acid colza oil; canola oil) is produced from lowerucic acid oil-bearing seeds of varieties derived from the Brassicanapus L., Brassica campestris L. and Brassica juncea L.,species.2.1.14 Safflowerseed oil (safflower oil; carthamus oil;kurdee oil) is derived from safflower seeds (seeds of Carthamustinctorius L.).2.1.15 Safflowerseed oil - high oleic acid (high oleicacid safflower oil; high oleic acid carthamus oil; high oleic acid kurdee oil)is produced from high oleic acid oil-bearing seeds of varieties derived fromCarthamus tinctorius L.2.1.16 Sesameseed oil (sesame oil; gingelly oil; benneoil; ben oil; till oil; tillie oil) is derived from sesame seeds (seeds ofSesamum indicum L.).2.1.17 Soya bean oil (soybean oil) is derived from soyabeans (seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr.).2.1.18 Sunflowerseed oil (sunflower oil) is derivedfrom sunflower seeds (seeds of Helianthus annuus L.).2.1.19 Sunflowerseed oil - high oleic acid (high oleicacid sunflower oil) is produced from high oleic acid oil-bearing seeds ofvarieties derived from sunflower seeds (seeds of Helianthus annuusL.).2.2 Other Definitions2.2.1 Edible vegetable oils are foodstuffs whichare composed primarily of glycerides of fatty acids being obtained only fromvegetable sources. They may contain small amounts of other lipids such asphosphatides, of unsaponifiable constituents and of free fatty acids naturallypresent in the fat or oil.2.2.2 Virgin oils are obtained, without alteringthe nature of the oil, by mechanical procedures, e.g. expelling or pressing, andthe application of heat only. They may have been purified by washing with water,settling, filtering and centrifuging only.2.2.3 Cold pressed oils are obtained, withoutaltering the oil, by mechanical procedures only, e.g. expelling or pressing,without the application of heat. They may have been purified by washing withwater, settling, filtering and centrifuging only.3. ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS3.1 GLC Ranges of Fatty Acid Composition (expressed aspercentages)Samples falling within the appropriate ranges specified inTable 1 are in compliance with this Standard. Supplementary criteria, forexample national geographical and/or climatic variations, may be considered, asnecessary, to confirm that a sample is in compliance with theStandard.3.1.1 Low-erucic acid rapeseed oil must not containmore than 2% erucic acid (as % of total fatty acids).3.1.2 High oleic acid safflower oil must contain notless than 70% oleic acid (as a % of total fatty acids).3.1.3 High oleic acid sunflower oil must contain notless than 75% oleic acid (as % of total fatty acids).3.3 Slip PointPalm oleinnot more than 24CPalm stearinnot less than 44C4. FOOD ADDITIVES4.1 No food additives are permitted in virgin or cold pressedoils.4.2 FlavoursNatural flavours and their identical synthetic equivalents,and other synthetic flavours, except those which are known to represent a toxichazard.4.3 AntioxidantsMaximum Level304Ascorbyl palmitate)500 mg/kg305Ascorbyl stearate)individually or in combination306Mixed tocopherols concentrateGMP307Alpha-tocopherolGMP308Synthetic gamma-tocopherol GMP309Synthetic delta-tocopherol GMP310Propyl gallate100 mg/kg319Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ)120 mg/kg320Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)175 mg/kg321Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)75 mg/kgAny combination of gallates, BHA and BHT and/or TBHQ200 mg/kg but limits above not to be exceeded389Dilauryl thiodipropionate 200 mg/kg4.4 Antioxidant Synergists Maximum Level 330 Citric acid GMP 331 Sodium citrates GMP 384 Isopropyl citrates ) 100 mg/kg individually or in combination Monoglyceride citrate ) 4.5 Anti-foaming Agents (oils for deepfrying)Maximum Level900aPolydimethylsiloxane10 mg/kg5. CONTAMINANTS5.1 Heavy MetalsThe products covered by the provisions of this Standard shallcomply with maximum limits being established by the Codex AlimentariusCommission but in the meantime the following limits will apply:Maximum permissible concentrationLead (Pb) 0.1 mg/kgArsenic (As)0.1 mg/kg5.2 Pesticide ResiduesThe products covered by the provisions of this Standard shallcomply with those maximum residue limits established by the Codex AlimentariusCommission for these commodities.6. HYGIENE6.1 It is recommended that the products covered by theprovisions of this Standard be prepared and handled in accordance with theappropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice - GeneralPrinciples of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3-1997), and other relevantCodex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice.6.2 The products should comply with any microbiologicalcriteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment andApplication of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997).7. LABELLING7.1 Name of the FoodThe product shall be labelled in accordance with the CodexGeneral Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985, Rev.1-1991). The name of the oil shall conform to the descriptions given in Section2 of this Standard.Where more than one name is given for a product in Section2.1, the labelling of that product must include one of those names acceptable inthe country of